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In some cases, reducing the dosage to a manageable level can assist to remove or decrease side effects. In some people that have a genetic Povigil, Provigil Webmd severe rare disorder in skin and mucous membrane including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis Provigjl Provigil Webmd, or drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms DRESS may be developed by using modafinil.

The evidence about this disorder is not completely conclusive at this time, but it Provigil Webmd significant to be conscious of the possibility CYP2C19 is a drug-metabolizing enzyme and involves in Provigil Webmd of diazepam, phenytoin and propranolol. Therefore, co-administration here modafinil with the mentioned drugs, may increase the circulating levels of those compounds 9.

It is reported that 7—10 percent of the Caucasian population similar or lower in other populations Proviggil defective in the enzyme Prpvigil. In such individual, by co-administration of modafinil, the levels of CYP2D6 substrates e. According to, while co-administration of modafinil with the mentioned therapeutics, it is necessary to adjust the drugs dosages 9.

Coadministration of other central Provugil system CNS active therapeutics such as dextroamphetamin and methylphenidate with modafinil do not meaningfully change the pharmacokinetics of either medicine 9. Chronic administration of modafinil can enhance the removal of CYP3A4substrates.

Dose adjustments may be required for individuals being treated with these and similar drugs 9. After exposure to modafinil in vitroan obvious concentration-associated inhibition of CYP2C9 functionality was seen in human hepatocytes. It Provlgil that there is a possibility for a metabolic interaction between modafinil and the substrates of this enzyme such as Provigil Buy Real and phenytoin.

However, an interaction survey in healthy volunteers reveled that chronic modafinil treatment do not significantly influence on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin when compared to placebo 9.

Spontaneously Generated Online Patient Experience of Modafinil: A Qualitative and NLP Analysis

Much of the research on the topic of modafinil have shown that modafinil is well tolerated 11— For example, one Provigil Webmd was conducted on depressed patients using modafinil to relieve symptoms of depression, including fatigue and sleepiness. The patients did not show risking a switch in their mood or Provigik tolerance or abuse of modfinil during two months of treatment Some studies were conducted to survey the possibility of modafinil tolerance in pediatric patients that used the drug for narcolepsy.

The results showed that no significant number of the patients developed tolerance However, there are some evidences about induction Webd modafinil Proviil in some patients by long-term use of the drug 15— This may Webmv the patient need higher daily doses in order to reach the same cognitive enhancement advantages or the same level of relief from sleepiness problems. One approach to avoid the potential risk Provigil Webmd developing modafinil tolerance issues is to skip a dose of the drug at one or even two days of a week.

Patients with present or past addictions to substances such as alcohol, cocaine, or nicotine and individuals with a family history of addiction are at highest risk of drug tolerance 15— A number of mechanisms may involve in Provigll tolerance to modafinil. First, it has been reported that modafinil blocks dopamine transporter in animals and human brain resulted in inhibition of dopamine reuptake Inhibition of Webme reuptake increases the extracellular levels of dopamine in the brain leading to disrupting wake-promoting actions in knock-out mice Blocking the dopamine reuptake may And Parnate Provigil dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and can be connected to the drug abuse.

This issue emphasizes the avoidance of the long-term use of modafinil In addition to dopamine, as one Wbmd the main chemicals influencing modafinil tolerance, modafinil can change norepinephrine levels in the brain, but not by WWebmd to induce addiction or euphoria The precise mechanism of modafinil tolerance is not Webmr recognized, however, there is some anecdotal evidence that can assist one to better comprehend modafinil tolerance and how to avoid it.

Compared to modafinil, armodafinil may have a longer duration of activity The patient recovery may be delayed and outcomes may potentially worse due to fatigue, excessive daytime somnolence EDSand depression Psychostimulants, specifically modafinil alleviated some of these signs in different patient populations. Clinical trials are underway discovering this novel usage of the medicine Results showed that modafinil has potential advantages when used in some critically ill patients to accelerate patient source and shorten ICU stay Although modafinil therapy Provigil Webmd the potential to speed up patient recovery and reduce ICU stay, but there are few data on modafinil utilizing in the ICU setting.

A review on modafinil: the characteristics, function, and use in critical care

In a Probigil cohort study, the role of modafinil for improvement Provigil Webmd cognition was surveyed in critically ill patients. After controlling for baseline severity of disease, age, and changes in sedation and analgesia over time, modafinil administration was seen to be associated with a small and non-significant increase in average scores of the Glasgow PProvigil Scale GCS by 0.

No important modafinil-related side effects were detected. However, because of absence of strong data, the influence of modafinil on general patient outcomes in the ICU remains ambiguous and requires more examination Modafinil has displayed slight probability for dependence or abuse, and it does Provigil Webmd seem to interrupt usual sleep architecture Because of appropriate safety profile and absence of drug interactions, modafinil has been considered a promising drug for utilize in ICU patients Because of a number of factors such as medications, the type of critical illness, substance abuse, oversedation and pain, critically ill patients are sensitive to develop neurocognitive problems It is proposed that the promptly and active mobilization of patients in the ICU importantly diminishes the possibility and period of delirium and can lead to reducing ICU length of stay 26— Critically ill patients who are capable to Prvoigil wakefulness are more anticipated to involve in aggressive physical therapy 29— Gajewski et al.

Despite of Provogil likely role Provigil Webmd modafinil in improving cognition and arousal in critically ill patients, the available data on the use of modafinil in the ICU setting is limited. The authors and peer reviewers on this manuscript have no relevant financial or other relationships to disclose. J Drug Assess. Published online Apr 4. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract In critically ill patients, sleep is generally interrupted. Keywords: modafinil, critically ill patients, narcolepsy, sleep disorders. Introduction In critically ill patients, sleep is generally interrupted. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Mechanism of action of modafinil The Webmx mechanism of action of modafinil is unclear.

Results: Posters had used Modafinil for 33 different primary conditions. Eight themes were identified: the reason for taking condition or symptomimpact of symptoms, acquisition, dosage, side Ptovigil, other interventions tried or compared to, effectiveness of Modafinil, and quality of life outcomes. Provigil Webmd classification was consistent with poster ratings.

Seven keyterms indicated negation and temporal states. Matching of sentiment between the qualitative and NLP methods was accurate in Conclusions: User generated patient experience is a rich resource for evaluating real world effectiveness, understanding patient perspectives, and identifying research gaps. Provigli methods successfully identified the entities and topics contained in the posts.

In contrast to current evidence, posters with a wide range of other conditions found Modafinil effective. Perceived causality and effectiveness were identified by Provivil methods demonstrating the potential to augment existing knowledge.

This unstructured freeform textual data contains a mass of contextually grounded detail about the perceptions and health concerns of those who post online. It has potential to add to clinical understanding, either by adding to knowledge where existing evidence is inconclusive 5or in aiding understanding Provigil Webmd real-world usage 6although the methods for analyzing it are still at an early stage of development 7 — Although evidence based medicine EBM has been instrumental in raising healthcare standards and developing clinical knowledge, it has acknowledged weaknesses 14 — 16including a divide between patient priorities and the research agenda 15 — 20 and a structural reliance on evidence from RCTs and systematic reviews 171820 Spontaneously generated online patient experience SGOPE is a data resource which could help address these weaknesses.

However, the lack of established methodologies to analyze it inhibits its use 22 — Natural language processing NLP refers to Provigil Webmd use of computational techniques and algorithms that aim to Provigil Webmd the semantic meaning from large volumes of unstructured text Provigil Webmd A rapidly developing area 27it is being used to explore health related social media usage 28 — 32detecting drug or device related adverse events from user generated content 3334generating new understanding about treatment switching and Provigil Webmd behavior 3536 and as a surveillance tool for infectious Provigil Webmd outbreaks 3738 and suicide risk 12 although little work has been carried out into Webd use for assessing effectiveness Our aim was to understand the data in depth Wsbmd order to develop Provigil Webmd NPL analysis for the subsequent study.

Qualitatively explore context, health conditions, and symptoms where Modafinil is used, its perceived Provigil Webmd and impact, and identify indications of causation of effect and outcomes. Use NLP and corpus linguistics to identify topics, create an ontology of entities, relationships, and causal text, and evaluate overall sentiment toward perceived effectiveness of Modafinil.

Sudden onset cognitive dysfunction and fatigue are debilitating, and distressing symptoms seen in a variety of conditions and clinical presentations. Modafinil is an out of patent oral wakefulness-promoting drug, first developed in Provigil Webmd late s, shown to be relatively Provigil Webmd, and with low abuse potential Modafinil has been considered a potential therapy for a range of conditions 43including ADHD 44multiple sclerosis 4546premature ejaculation 47depression 48Parkinson's disease 49chemotherapy related fatigue 5051traumatic brain injury 52and cocaine dependence Findings have been mixed, with systematic reviews generally inconclusive, showing either insufficient 5254 — 56 or low quality evidence 56 — However, despite the lack of conclusive trial based evidence there appears to be a substantial amount of online discussion suggesting that there are people for whom it Provigil Webmd made a significant difference to their symptoms and quality of life We compared the results of the NLP analysis with those from the qualitative analysis.

In Januaryusing google searches, we identified websites containing publicly available text about the experience of Modafinil use. We defined publicly available as where the data identified was available to view by anyone without any form of login, password or registration. The final selection included: AskAPatient 62Provigil Webmd. Online spaces can be transient and unfortunately the ModUp site no longer exists online, but all the others are still visible.

From the see more we identified posts made between 1st Jan and 17th Janand searched for individual posts about Modafinil or variant names Provigil, Wwbmd, Nuvigil using the Provigil Webmd search engine.

We then used random number generation to select posts from across the five sites for further analysis. This volume of data was likely to Pfovigil sufficient to reach data saturation for the qualitative analysis and be sufficient for linguistic analysis.

Each site had its own data structure with a Wwbmd of fields. Age and gender self-definition were optional on each of the sites. We standardized the data using the following steps:. For the latter, the average of the three scores was calculated. We standardized all ratings to a value of between 1 and All poster identification was removed, and a unique code allocated to each post.

To generate initial descriptive statistics we calculated post lengths, before coding and quantifying any included gender, age groups, duration of taking Modafinil, and numeric ratings.

The ethical issues surrounding the Provigil Webmd of SGOPE data for research purposes are complex and continue to evolve 66 Making a clear distinction between public and private spaces online can be difficult 68 Wevmd, SGOPE can be classified as publicly available data 70 but as it was originally Provigil Webmd by the online sites and contains detail of individuals it does not fit the narrower definition of open data which can be freely used, re-used, and distributed by anyone At the time of the design of this study there was a lack of clear guidance from UK Research Councils or other organizations 68 In our methods we tried to minimize the potential for any form of harm.

There has been significant recent debate around expectations of privacy 73 It is impossible to know the motivation, or expectation of privacy of each poster in publishing their content, but posters writing on sites that are password protected Provigi restricted to members may have greater expectations that their privacy will be protected.

Concerns exist that individuals could be identified from the posts they make, and that they may consequently suffer harm from some unforeseen use of the data. Potential harms range from unwanted commercial marketing use to profiling that could negatively impact future insurance or career choices However, some studies looking at user attitudes found that social media users Provgil generally positive toward their posts being used for research provided that they were protected Provigil Webmd harm and that the research had potential benefit There are examples of social media communities deliberately formed in open online spaces to enable individuals to come together to form a voice that is heard by health systems 76 No Provigil Free address or other geographical data was collected, all forms of usernames were removed, and the dates of the post reduced to a year value to minimize any Provigil Webmd of reidentification Use of this type of data is covered under the doctrine of fair use 78 However, we successfully arranged a data sharing agreement with AskApatient and unsuccessfully sought to put one Provigil Webmd place with ModUp.

Erowid position themselves as working with academics and medical experts and state that they generally agree to research use.

However, we received no response from our repeated requests. All of the sites included invited posters to submit experience reports for publication on the respective platform.

Content from drugs. Following familiarization with the posts, the data was coded and the codes merged into themes. We used MaxQDA software 82using an iterative process of code identification and review as we progressed through the data. For each theme we counted the number of posts in which they Provigil Webmd. We categorized text within each post into one of four broad categories, PreModafinil, Acquisition, Dosage, and PostModafinil. These categories align with the base state, action, and consequence sequence required to indicate a possible perceived causal effect 8384 Table 1.

We compared the coded sections of each post across the sequence categories to identify the poster's own Provigil Webmd of whether taking Modafinil was linked to an causal belief and identifiable outcome. We classified each post for perceived effectiveness positive, mixed, negative, neutral, unclear Table 2. We assessed each post in isolation; balancing the positive and negative aspects of language used, reported benefits Provigil Webmd side effects, and reference to the continued use or cessation.

Fifty posts were initially independently classified by two team members and discrepancies discussed. JW then classified the click the following article posts. For posts which had associated numerical ratings we categorized ratings of 0—3 as negative, 4—7 as mixed, and 8—10 as positive. Using chi squared test we compared our manually assessed classification with the poster's rating.

The narrative fields were extracted to create a corpus. Due to the small size of this exploratory dataset, we used a corpus linguistics tool, SketchEngine 85 for the structural analysis of the text.

Typical NLP projects return best results from very large datasets, while corpus linguistics can be used on smaller data sets of Provigil Webmd size also amenable to qualitative analysis. Corpus linguistics and NLP share some similar analysis techniques Provigil Webmd Pre-processing for both NLP and corpus linguistics begins by Provigil Webmd the text into tokens representing the smallest possible linguistic unit.

We used stemming and lemmatization to assign inflected words to the same term, reducing the number of inflectional forms of a word and reducing variants to a common base 88 We used case independent word frequency and term extraction.

Similar to TF-IDF of NLP, term extraction identifies the terms most specific to the text by calculating term frequency in the text compared to frequency of the same term in the reference corpus. For our reference Provigil Webmd we used the English Web corpus enTenTen13 90a corpus of 19 billion words collected from online sources.

We extracted the top specific keywords and terms. The top of each indicated the most prevalent topics. The least frequent were used to identify instances of spelling variations or non-words; these were added to the Provigil Wonder Drug specific dictionary intended for use in the next stage of the project.

To identify relevant entities, we used Provigil Webmd following POS tokens tagged as nouns:. Drug Names—both name variations of Modafinil and other drugs; those taken previously, concurrently, or subsequently in addition to some that may have no relevance to the post. Condition Names—identifiable condition names were categorized from term extraction analysis.

Sleep related disorders were classified in line with the ICSD3 classification systems Symptoms—symptoms of interest in this study relating to fatigue or cognitive issues. Initial dictionary entries were created from common synonyms, with further additions identified from the previous analysis.

Action—the action of taking Modafinil has two main components: amount and frequency. Terms and phrases to identify both were found within the posts and included in the dictionary. Side Effects—term extraction was particularly useful in identifying side effects that the poster described, as patients often use a wide range of terms to describe them that may not map easily to recognizable medical terms.

We used three methods to identify the relationships between entities in order to understand the semantic meaning of the text:. Collocation analysis 92 to reveal patterns and meanings that may not be apparent from frequency lists or manual reading of the texts.

Co-occurrence analysis: this assumes that if two entities co-exist within so many words that there is an underlying relationship between them. Unlike collocations, the relevant words need not be adjacent to each other, but occur within the same unit of text. Co-occurrences can highlight relationships indicating a causal link such as a side effect, outcome event, or demonstrate a negated drug event—one which denies a causal relationship between the drug and the event.

To identify possible causal text, we split the corpus into to sub corpora based on the text categories PreModafinil and PostModafinil see section Qualitative Analysis above and used n-gram analysis on each, looking for phrases between 3 and 5 words long that occurred at least five times in the corpora.

Where an Provigil Webmd was ambiguous we examined the co-location and co-occurrence analysis to assist categorization. Pre-processing included converting text to lower case, removing punctuation, and removal of the default stop words. We manually mapped each of the most frequent key words and terms from the computational corpus analysis to the Provigil Webmd that emerged from the qualitative analysis. To compare NLP sentiment analysis to the qualitative categorization of positive, mixed,, or negative we used two comparison scales.

In both cases a polarity value of 0 was mapped to Neutral. We mapped each of the 3—5 word length ngrams to the themes from the qualitative analysis.

Where an ngram could apply to more than a single theme, we used the collocation and co-occurrence techniques in order to map it to the theme or group Provigil Webmd which it was most prevalent. The accuracy of the post level comparison was assessed using a confusion matrix.

The dataset included posts with a total length of 72, words average ; minimum 15; maximum 2, Posts from AskAPatient 30— wordsDrugs. The defined age-groups ranged from under 18 to over 75, with the largest age-group being 45—54 years. Of these 34 All posts were concerned with finding a solution for symptoms of fatigue, sleep and or cognitive dysfunction. Although Modafinil is only indicated for a single condition within the UK, 33 different health conditions were mentioned within this small sample of posts.

Other conditions included cancer, traumatic brain injury, diabetes, epilepsy, fibromyalgia, autoimmune conditions, pain, IBS, hepatitis C, or post stroke fatigue. Multi-morbidity was a regular feature. Almost all posts contained detail of how these fatigue or cognitive symptoms affect their lives, emotionally, socially, and practically. Responses to their conditions included fear, desperation, hopelessness, resignation, embarrassment, and guilt:. Life was miserable. I was being treated for depression and had even considered suicide.

There see more no way out of this rut. I had resigned myself to life handicapped with fatigue, and I felt really hopeless about it [].

I couldn't stand being this form of myself any longer—it's not me []. Symptoms were described as having considerable impact on family and social relationships, putting a strain on marriages, partnerships and affecting parenting:.

My husband gets sick and tired of me being tired all the time and particularly hates it when I have to have a nap []. Before Nuvigal I couldn't keep my eyes open and live my normal life with 3 boys!

Now, after Nuvigal I can actually play with my kids and be a normal mother. A total of posts had the potential to include a numeric rating of the effectiveness of Modafinil of which posters completed the rating. The average value after standardization was 7. This stuff is pretty amazing, i can actually have a normal day rather than fighting just to get through one.

Some posters reported that stopping taking Modafinil for a Provigil Webmd days before resuming a daily dose appeared to restore its effectiveness. After a week or so, effects not as strong and can make you feel paradoxically very tired.

Take 2—3 days off, and it will resume working. I did notice however that I have to take breaks from it for Privigil to remain effective. I now only take it if I have a Provigil Webmd day planned and have to go out, otherwise I stay Provigil Webmd home and take a nap. The posts also illustrated how users have experimented to find a dosage pattern that they find effective Table 4.

Almost half the posts contained text detailing the variations in frequency they had tried and those they found most effective. The impact of side effects varied, 12 posts described them as minimal, while 13 felt they were temporary, passing within a few days.

Provifil posters stated that Provigil Webmd had stopped taking Modafinil; eight due to side effects and one because of an interaction with an MAOI antidepressant. Now because they say Modafinil is not a bi-polar medicine they refuse to pay for it.

A review on modafinil: the characteristics, function, and use in critical care - PMC

Without it I wake with nightmares. It's very sad insurance says they know better than a group of doctors and 10 years of success using a prescription []. Almost all posts included details of previously prescribed or tried interventions including self-help or lifestyle changes, and any interventions taken in combination with Modafinil. I find modafinil it more effective than caffeine although the initial effects seemed to wear off after about 8 hours or so.

There are definitely less side effects than with other prescription stimulants such as phentermine or ritalin. Identification of causal text was helped by the reported rapid onset of any effect, with many posters who believe it to have an effect, either positive or negative, noticing changes within an hour of taking it.

Of the highest frequency keywords 88 mapped directly to qualitative themes, seven related to negation or scale and 5 could not be classified. Of the highest frequency key terms, 84 mapped directly to the qualitative themes, seven referred to negation and temporal aspects, Provigil Webmd nine could not be classified Table 5. The 3—5-word ngram analysis on both the pre-Modafanil 35 and post-Modafanil text generated ngrams classified into the eight themes and 6 categories reported Provigil Webmd Table 8.

As with the keywords and keyterms we found that many of these ngrams correlated with and mapped onto the themes that emerged from the qualitative analysis. Others related specifically to Provigil Webmd, sequential, negation, or confirmation text that could be used to identify phrases inferring causality.

Examples of generic ngrams and the context in which they were used are given in Table 9. We were able to match ngrams to the expression of causal analysis identified by the qualitative analysis Table Within this exploratory study of the unstructured narrative post content, both methods successfully demonstrated how the majority of posters with a wide range of conditions found Modafinil effective in reducing fatigue or cognitive symptoms.

In Provigil Webmd the human based qualitative study first, those findings acted as an informal benchmark Provigil Webmd the automated NLP study. The eight themes generated reflected the main aspects of patient experiences of an intervention. It also explored the detailed context that was often included within the poster's evaluation, including the reasons for starting or stopping using it, Provigil Webmd with other Provigil Webmd that they may have tried or moved onto, side effects and tangible or intangible effects on their quality of life.

As with a recent paper comparing grounded theory with topic modeling on survey data 95our NLP based methods successfully identified many of the qualitative findings, demonstrating how this form of data has the potential to identify effectiveness and the topics discussed within the posts.

In terms of sentiment analysis, the results highlight some of the current issues with NLP methods. Rule based methods that determine sentiment are based on a lexicon of prelabelled words and the accuracy of the results is heavily dependent on the data that the model was trained read article and the words that are considered important to that model.

The majority of the existing generic NLP sentiment analysis tools were trained on either film, restaurant, or Amazon product reviews as these represent some of the largest shared annotated sentiment resources Looking at some of the posts with opposing categorizations Table 11demonstrates how many of the concepts that posters describe in their evaluations include stopwords or words that may not be evaluated as expressing sentiment. Improved accuracy will require the development or use of a domain specific model.

These findings of overall effectiveness contrast strongly to the existing current RCT and systematic review evidence, which are generally used to determine treatment pathway options for clinicians Although various RCTs have looked at Modafinil as a potential therapy across a range of conditions, findings have been mixed, and the systematic reviews generally conclude that the evidence is either inconclusive or of insufficient quality 44 — 47495052 This contradiction may have implications on both on patient care and the efficiency of healthcare provision, either through the patient not receiving an intervention that may be effective, or by receiving one that is ineffective 97 One of the possible reasons for the inconclusive trial evidence to date is the heterogeneity of effect that can occur within trials Trials generally exclude participants with multiple comorbidities as these may act as confounders when measuring effectiveness 97 whereas many of posters have two or more co-existing conditions, and may use combinations of interventions, or react to a single intervention in different ways.

Systematic reviews show how trials report either the effects of a single dose or a regular daily dose for a limited time 48—whereas our findings include much greater variety of usage patterns. Our results illustrate how some posters have varied dosage patterns and amounts to find the optimal dosage regime for them, with some finding that lower doses than those usually prescribed were more effective.

The data also demonstrated the existence of a possible tolerance effect but included the suggestion that taking occasional breaks or taking as required appeared to be a viable method of retaining effectiveness over time.

Identified side effects generally reflected those already known 94however the retrospective nature of the posts enabled the discovery of the temporary nature of some common side effects, a factor that will not be reflected in single dose trials.

Studies have begun to look at the lexical and grammatical features of causal statements in free text 84 and some work has been done using NLP to identify pharmacological adverse events from social media 33, suggesting that negative effectiveness can be shown from this type of data. Identifying causal text requires showing temporality; the effect occurring after the cause.

Dividing the corpus into pre and post intervention by tagging the tense of tokens facilitated this classification, while ngrams and other POS tags helped us identify sequential events. One of the issues of identifying causality in any kind of study has always been in differentiating between correlation and causation Increasing the volume and range of data may achieve a higher degree of Provigil Webmd and external validity and while summarizing and visualization may be useful in analyzing SGOPE datasets, correlation is not the same as causation and on its own it is unlikely to be robust enough to add to an evidence base.

In our study, strength is demonstrated by how almost all posters reported an effect, either Provigil Webmd, negative Provigil Webmd mixed. By using multiple data sources and including patients with a wide range of conditions we have shown consistency of findings across populations. The purpose of our research is not to provide a statistical proof of effectiveness across the whole patient population, but to Provigil Webmd a better understanding of the patient experience of using Modafinil, Provigil Webmd exploring individual patient's perspective of check this out or not it is effective for them.

Causal dispositionalism is an alternative theory to the non-reductionist approach to causation, Provigil Webmd may be relevant to this type of data. This takes a more nuanced view of how the characteristics or dispositions of both the intervention and the individual combine to affect the effectiveness Rather than taking a statistically based population level view, marginal cases, and outliers are used as a starting point for further investigation of potential predicates However, no matter how accurately causal text is identified, the possibility of a placebo effect, recognized as a powerful factor in a patient's assessment of effectiveness both in and out of trials — means that it is impossible to tell how much of the sentiment toward effects, either positive or negative, is due to such an effect rather than the Modafinil itself.

Using content purely from the public domain is both a strength and a limitation. Validity is increased by using a diverse range of data sources.

This clustering of individuals can lead to a confirmation bias as consensus has been shown to have a positive impact on the perceived effectiveness of treatment Using multiple sites can mitigate this type of contagion while the scale of the data being analyzed should negate the problems of an individual post being incorrectly classified or missed.

Although there will always be an element of the unknown about the motivations and authenticity of such posts, analyzing them on a large scale rather than just a small subsection, can negate the impact of those individuals or organizations who might try to create an inaccurate impression, while techniques are continually being developed to identify spam or non-genuine posts. As the content is generated entirely by the poster, SGOPE relies on the poster's self-description of their condition, which may include self-diagnosis, rather than that of a clinician.

Reporting of symptoms and outcomes may not be as accurate Provigil Webmd complete as it could be although this limitation can apply to any form of self-reported data, whether in a check this out, clinical encounter, or online. Self-reported data, especially on hard to measure factors such as fatigue and cognition is subjective, but generally reflects the normative value of the patient.

The natural, non-clinical language used within unstructured text can contain valuable information that may remain unexplored in a clinical or research settingbut it can also contain many spelling or grammatical errors as well as slang terms or colloquialisms that are problematic even for NLP methods created Provigil Webmd electronic health records EHRs The next study in the project will be a fully NLP based analysis of a much larger dataset of patient experiences of Modafinil use.

Having identified some of the possibilities and potential pitfalls, we will use these findings to develop methods that can be subsequently generalized to evaluate other interventions from unstructured text.

We have demonstrated how SGOPE shows potential for the identification of perceived causation and evaluation of the effectiveness of Modafinil. The findings show that in comparison to the current inconclusive evidence, most posters find Modafinil to be effective in dealing with fatigue and cognitive symptoms across a wider range of conditions.

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Modafinil reduces extreme sleepiness due to narcolepsy and other sleep disorders, such as periods of stopped breathing during sleep (obstructive sleep. Find user ratings and reviews for Provigil Oral on WebMD including side effects and drug interactions, medication effectiveness, ease of use and.

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