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Is Provigil A Psychiatric Drug

Provigil Con Ricetta > Provigil Medication Ingredients

Posted by Kelabar on 2022-08-07

Federal government websites often end in. The site is secure. Modafinil is a waking drug prescribed to narcolepsy patients, but its usage among healthy individuals is increasing to enhance their alertness Psychiatriic to mitigate fatigue.

This study was conducted to investigate practical use and toxic effects on neuro-immune interaction of modafinil. Is Provigil A Psychiatric Drug study reviewed the significance of psychoactive drugs, Proigil discussed the benefits and risks of the application of modafinil, which seems to be ideal as an anti-psychotic or anti-fatigue agent. Modafinil is known to have less or no adverse effects than those found in traditional psychostimulants such as amphetamine, methylphenidate or cocaine.

It can be applied as an anti-psychotic or anti-fatigue agent. However, the waking mechanism of Deug is yet to be fully revealed. Recent studies reported that modafinil may be subject to Provgil and addiction.

In addition prolonged sleeplessness induces stress responses and impairs immune function. Modafinil can be used by anyone, who wishes to work late, stay awake, enhance their cognitive reactions, or brighten their moods. Users Psyhiatric already be under a great level of stress, i.

A psychoneuroimmunological approach is thus needed to investigate the multi-functional effects of modafinil. Modafinil 2-[ diphenylmethyl sulfinyl] acetamide is an exclusive psychostimulant with a waking effect, and is a special medicine that can only be prescribed to shift workers and patients suffering from narcolepsy or sleep apnea Figure 1 [ 12 ].

Modafinil has been commercialized as a waking drug in [ 3 ]. The normal Pzychiatric of modafinil in humans is between 12 to 15 hours [ 4 ]. Modafinil consists of R-enantiomer and S-enantiomer as a racemic compound, and the waking effect of R-enantiomer has a longer duration. Moreover, Armodafinil, which is a Provigik, was commercialized as a waking drug [ 56 ].

Pharmacological profile is notably different from the traditional psychostimulants, such as amphetamines, cocaine or methylphenidate. Modafinil is less Provigli to side effects such as excess locomotor activities, anxiety, jitteriness, or rebound effects than Iw traditional Iss [ 7 ]. It not only has a waking effect but is also known for its mood-brightening and memory-enhancing effects.

Modafinil has also been tried on disease-related fatigue, attention-deficit disorder, Alzheimer's disease, age-related memory decline, depression, idiopathic hypersomnia, cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, myotonic dystrophy, post-anaesthesia grogginess, everyday cat-napping, and jet-lag Is Provigil A Psychiatric Drug [ 28 - 12 ].

Modafinil is also of a high interest to the US military for enhancing alertness and reducing battle fatigue [ 81314 ]. Availability of modafinil as a lifestyle drug is increasing, namely as a non-prescription medicine for healthy people. More students or hard-working professionals will use it for a late night's work, if it can easily be purchased. In fact, it is sold illegally in on-line shopping Psychiatrlc. Modafinil Psychuatric distinct from other psychostimulants in that it does not seem to accompany any side effects, and this might encourage healthy people Psychiwtric use it whenever they want to.

However, prolonged sleeplessness induces stress responses and impairs immune functions [ 15 ]. Sleep-deprivation translocates microbes from the gut to blood streams [ 16 ].

Animals observed in sleep-deprivation experiments eventually became victims of a massive bacterial infection in the blood. The purpose of Drugg review is to introduce practical application of modafinil as an alertness-enhancing and anti-fatigue drug, and to discuss pharmacological and immunomodulatory effects of modafinil, of which the first impression is harmless, even ideal.

Psychoactive drugs are commonly classified into four categories: tranquilizers, depressants, stimulants and Is Provigil A Psychiatric Drug Figure 2.

However, the bounds of these categories are not precisely delineated; rather, they have several effects that overlap or combine into a new, different one.

Depressants and tranquilizers are used to relieve fear, anxiety or excessive tension, while stimulants Psychiatic fatigue, stress or depression [ 91718 ]. In particular, stimulants along with depressants or tranquilizers are medicated to treat sleep disorders or to maintain alertness for an extended period [ 819 ]. However, most psychoactive drugs have tolerance or dependence; in other words, they bring about addiction in varying degrees. Thus, these psychoactive drugs may cause problems when medicated repeatedly or continuously.

Despite the side effects of psychoactive source, amphetamine and caffeine have been traditionally used as alertness-enhancing or anti-fatigue drugs. Amphetamine, a kind of phenylethylamine, is a stimulant.

Amphetamine maintains alertness by inhibiting the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine, and by that it stimulates the secretion of catecholamines preserved in the vesicle of neuronal cells [ 20 ]. The brain's reward circuits, which are related to dopaminergic transmission, are involved in pharmacological effects of amphetamine in the nervous Provigi, [ 21 ].

However, amphetamine has an adverse rebounding effect that causes depression or anxiety when the intended Drhg Is Provigil A Psychiatric Drug off [ 22 ]. As a clinical medication, amphetamine is used Psychiatrlc treat traumatic brain injury, chronic fatigue syndrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHDand hypnolesy [ 82324 ]. It is also illegally prescribed as a mood enhancer or as a waking drug for daily life. Amphetamine is widely used for its comparative effectiveness and lasting duration, but when abused it becomes a highly addictive narcotic of rapid toleration rate and increasing dependence [ 25 ].

Caffeine, a methylxantine derivative, has been used as a psychoactive drug for a long period of time. For healthy adults, the halflife of caffeine is 5 hours and it can be extended up to 11 hours for pregnant women or women taking birth control pills [ 26 ].

Caffeine acts as an antagonist of adenosin receptors [ 2728 ]. Pharmaceutically, caffeine is a stimulant of metabolism and the central nervous system but is also used as a lifestyle drug Psychiagric a clinical drug to decrease physical fatigue and maintain alertness. Caffeine capsules brighten the mood for those with accumulated fatigue due to lack of sleep and enhance concentration and task performance.

In daily life, caffeine is included in food or drinks to help to improve alertness and to recover from fatigue [ 29 ]. Medically, it is sold as a pill [ 81924 ]. The effectiveness and duration of caffeine are not as great as amphetamine. A novel class of psychostimulants Is Provigil A Psychiatric Drug eugeroics under which modafinil, adrafinil, and ampakine are categorized. Eugeroic means good arousal; that is, eugeroics show no sign of common side effects of traditional psychostimulants, such as interference in recovery sleep, psychiatric disturbance, and addiction [ 53031 ].

Modafinil has been clinically proven as an effective medication in treating narcolepsy, a disabling neurological disorder characterized by permanent and uncontrollable daytime sleepiness.

Orexin, which is a family of wakefulness-promoting Proviyil sleep-inhibiting peptides, is involved in inducing narcolepsy [ 32 ]. The orexin neurons are found exclusively in the lateral hypothalamus and the orexin Psycjiatric in the hypothalamic area projects to the entire central nervous system [ 33 ]. Orexin neurons may be activated by modafinil. Thus modafinil may induce wakefulness by its action in the anterior hypothalamus [ 34 ].

However, the waking mechanism of modafinil on orexin neurons yet to be fully elucidated. In a cat study, equal doses of amphetamine and methylphenidate increased c-fos gene expression in entire brain region including the caudate, but modafinil induced selectively and prominently the c-fos expression in hypothalamus of the brain [ 35 ].

Modafinil did not bind to most receptors Drugg to sleep and wake cycle and did not inhibit monoamineoxidase or phosphodiesterase activities [ 36 ]. However, some other mechanisms of waking effects were proposed experimentally. Modafinil activates central alpha 1-adrenergic receptor as an agonist [ 37 Psychaitric.

The currently proposed mechanism of modafinil suggests that modafinil induces alertness through alpha-adrenergic receptor. However, alpha-adrenergic transmission can not fully explain why the alpha-adrenergic receptors in only a specific part of the brain are activated for enhancing or Dfug wakefulness. Modafinil inhibits the reuptake of noradrenalin in the noradrenergic nerve endings. Therefore, the noradrenalin Is Provigil A Psychiatric Drug between sleep-promoting neurons of ventrolateral preoptic nucleus is amplified.

Modafinil also amplifies cortical serotonin release [ 40 ]. Amplification of the electro-neurosecretory Psychiqtric mechanisms Is Provigil A Psychiatric Drug preferentially involved in serotonin Psychiatrjc by modafinil, while Psychiagric reuptake process does not relate to serotonin release. Modafinil increases histamine release significantly in the anterior hypothalamus.

However, modafinil did not induce histamine release in the orexin knockout mice [ 4142 Provigjl. That is, increase of histamine release by modafinil requires orexinergic transmission. It has been Is Provigil A Psychiatric Drug that modafinil may not be involved in dopamine release in the brain including the nuclear accumbens [ 3743 ], although it seems that modafinil interacts with multiple molecular targets in the brain.

However, in a recent research, addictive potential of modafinil has been reported [ 4445 ]. There is substantial evidence that modafinil, just like other addictive drugs, is sensitive to dopamine signaling in the brain [ 3045 - 47 ].

Modafinil preempts dopamine transporter DAT and norepinephrine transporters in a living primate brain [ 44 ]. Drgu inhibits dopamine reuptake through DAT [ 4849 ]. Therefore modafinil administration increases extracellular levels of dopamine in the brain [ 50 - 52 ], and wake-promoting actions are absent in the DAT-knock-out mice [ 50 ].

Modafinil blocks DAT and causes an increase of dopamine in the animals and human brain including the nucleus accumbens, thus inducing the same response as other waking drugs [ 4549 Druv, 52 ]. An increase of dopamine in the Drkg accumbens may be connected to drug abuse. The results of the experiment mentioned above are insufficient for a definitive evidence of addiction, since the main focus of those experiments was not addiction.

However, these results lead to the possibility of addiction and have set the basis of prohibition on long-term medication of modafinil. Fatigue is a usual symptom among cancer patients, which degrades their quality of life. Depression in cancer patients may also come with tiredness.

In regard to treatment of cancer-related fatigue, methylphenidate has long been studied Psychiatgic be very effective, despite its side effects [ 9Psychiwtric ]. Modafinil was also well-tolerated and effective against fatigue in cancer patients when self-administrated for four weeks [ 10 ]. The mood Pssychiatric quality of life of those patients were improved. Modafinil has been applied effectively to treat fatigue associated Provitil depression, amyotropic lateral sclerosis, and multiple Ptovigil [ 1154 ].

Modafinil is effective in lowering the elevated fatigue level of cancer or multiple sclerosis patients, but positive effects in cognitive dysfunction associated with diseases are still controversial [ 5455 ].

Fatigue is a significant problem in a combat environment. Combat fatigue come mainly from sleep deprivation caused by extended duty periods, unpredictable work hours, circadian disruption, fear, anxiety, and many more. Combat fatigue by continuous sleep deprivation or sleep disorder can be mitigated by medication.

Never share Provigil with another person, especially someone with a history of drug abuse or addiction. Keep the medication in a place .serp-item__passage{color:#} Reports of serious dermatologic adverse effects and psychiatric events has resulted in the FDA's Pediatric Advisory Committee unanimously recommending that a specific warning against the use. Provigil is a stimulant drug, classified by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) as Schedule II, in the same class of highly addictive drugs as morphine, opium  Please note: No one should attempt to get off of psychiatric drugs without doctor’s supervision.

Modafinil along with the traditional psychostimulants, such as amphetamines and cocaine, has alertness-enhancing effect and mitigate the accumulated fatigue in combat environment [ 1314Prlvigil ]. The effectiveness of caffeine, modafinil, and amphetamine has been directly compared in a few studies, and the doses of equal effectiveness in enhancing alertness and vigilance for each of these three compounds were specified [ 222756 ].

Administration of a single dose of caffeine mg, modafinil mg, dextroamphetamine 20 mg, or placebo after 44 hours of continuous wakefulness restored psychomotor vigilance effectively compared to placebo in healthy adults [ 27 ].

The duration Proviyil this effect was longest for dextroamphetamine and shortest for caffeine. At Surgery Provigil doses, caffeine turned out to have the most "subjectively reported side effects", followed by dextroamphetamine.

Dextroamphetamine was the only stimulant that had adverse effects on subsequent recovery sleep. Modafinil did not show significant, subjectively-reported side-effects nor subsequent recovery sleep compared to placebo. The effectiveness of these three stimulants is arranged in Table 1. Modafinil group was not significantly different from placebo group in adverse effects. Modafinil is generally tolerated, and has visit web page reported cases of adverse events.

Modafinil improves task performance when medicated to people with normal living patterns. It is also more Pxychiatric than amphetamine [ 57 ]. Modafinil may become a lifestyle drug without a restriction for narcoleptic patients. Also, the US military has shown interest in modafinil for increasing alertness and helping battle Prkvigil [ 81314 ]. Moreover, when medicated to people with fatigue and lethargic Proviggil as symptoms of depression, modafinil generates a synergy by relieving fatigue as well as depression [ 11 ].

Modafinil Pyschiatric a great potential of Is Provigil A Psychiatric Drug a combat-capability-enhancing drug due to its waking, mood-brightening, and fatigue relieving effects [ 2 ]. Elevated lethargy or fatigue under Is Provigil A Psychiatric Drug combat environment or war can be decreased by modafinil, and this can also lead to an enhancement of combat capability through an improvement in vigilance, psychomotor activity, and self-regard.

In early studies, it has been known that modafinil is a well tolerated drug with a low probability of addiction. However, the possibility of addiction in modafinil was reported in recent papers mentioned above [ 4445 Psychhiatric. Modafinil induced the elevation of dopamine level in the nucleus accumbens, which could lead to drug abuse.

Traditional waking drugs elicit dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of the brain. Modafinil increases dopamine in the nucleus accumbens through inhibition of DAT in the animal and human brain as other addictive waking drugs [ 444952 ]. Classification of modafinil as an addictive is still controversial. Modafinil show possible setbacks of Psychiattic and addiction even though no cases have been reported to date Procigil 45 ].

The Psycniatric mechanism of Pyschiatric must be further elucidated. In general, we believe that sleep helps to build the immune system. Sleep deprivation induces stress responses and impairs immune functions [ 1516 ]. However, reports for immunomodulating effects of modafinil for keeping wakefulness are quite limited. An investigation for immunomodulation effects of modafinil is a significant step in itself. The disruption of circadian rhythm and sleep control may influence the neuro-immune circuits [ 3233 ].

A waking drug may have effects on neuro-immune circuits. If someone, who is a non-narcoleptic patient, Is Provigil A Psychiatric Drug to Provkgil modafinil for waking, enhancing their cognition, or brightening his mood, they may already be under a high level of stress, like soldiers in a battle field. It is possible that modafinil seekers already face quite a stressful situation.

Stress responses via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis start from corticotropin-releasing hormone CRH [ 5859 ]. The waking Drugg of modafinil is related to CRH [ 60 ]. Modafinil cannot be excluded from investigation for immunomodulatory effects of stress.

Serum C-reactive protein level, which indicates the inflammation level of an individual, was increased by a single dose of modafinil, while it reduced host resistance to Listeria monocytogenes infection [ 2 ]. Alertness-enhancing effect of modafinil may affect the autonomic nervous system in the periphery [ 61 Provgiil, 62 ].

Modafinil increases resting heart rate and blood pressure. Modafinil elicits plasma and urine norepinephrine and urine epinephrine.

Provigil (modafinil)

Modafinil may induce sympathomedullary activation. Usage of modafinil could be restricted to patients with heart disease because it causes excessive peripheral autonomic activation. A few studies reported that modafinil impairs recovery sleep under sleep deprivation, although alertness-enhancing or cognitive-improving effect of modafinil is significant among sleep-deprived individuals [ 126364 ].

As modafinil gradually became known for its mood-brightening and memory-enhancing effects along with its waking effect, its usage has clearly increased as it is now medicated to treat memory loss due to dementia, ADHD, jet lag, and fatigue caused by extended work hours or illnesses.

The demand for drugs is high among those in competitive environments such as high school students, examinees for new career development, and athletes. If someone who is not a narcoleptic patient wants to use modafinil for waking, enhancing their cognition, or brightening their moods, they may already be under great stress, like cancer patients or soldiers in a battle field.

A psychoneuroimmunological approach is therefore needed to investigate multi-functional effects of modafinil. A psychoneuroimmunological approach may elucidate the immunomodulating effects of modafinil in the aspect of communication between the nervous and immune system.

In future studies, mechanism of modafinil will continue to be examined because modafinil may generate possible abuse and addiction and its waking mechanism has not been fully elucidated [ 3645 ].

Also, its medication guidelines have to be revised because experiments on the dose and frequency of modafinil have shown different results under multiple simulations, and armodafinil, which is proven to be more safe and effective, has been commercialized as a substituent of modafinil.

This study is supported by a grant for basic science - from Agency for Defense Development. Perceived benefits, however, did persist beyond immediate use of modafinil. Everyday use of Vs Provigil Excelerol resulted in higher reported longer-lasting effects.

This finding may, however, be explained by the pharmacokinetic profile of modafinil. As the half-life of modafinil is approximately 12—15 hours [ 2526 ], daily use of modafinil would result in a constant, and possibly increasing, plasma concentration of modafinil, which also suggests constant, higher levels of synaptic DA and NE in addition to other neurotransmitters that are modulated by modafinil. Increased synaptic DA and NE have been associated with improved cognitive function [ 2853 ].

One-fifth of respondents reported having a psychiatric diagnosis and, of these, the most commonly reported diagnoses were depression, anxiety or both depression and anxiety. However, it should be noted that the reported rates of psychiatric diagnosis among modafinil users do seem to be higher than the Prevalence and official recognition of psychiatric problems varies by country, gender and age group [ 5556 ], therefore making direct comparisons difficult.

It may be that modafinil use may have preceded the psychiatric diagnosis or it may be that modafinil may have been being used to combat the potential side-effects of prescribed medications. Individuals with a psychiatric diagnosis did not always perceive greater benefits of modafinil use compared with those without a psychiatric diagnosis.

Respondents with a reported psychiatric diagnosis perceived significantly greater longer-lasting benefits but the perceived immediate benefits were not significantly greater. This is somewhat surprising considering the potential mood enhancing effects of modafinil [ 43 ]. Deficiencies in DA, NE and serotonin are likely to underpin major depressive disorder [ 57 ].

As modafinil intake results in higher levels of DA, NE, and serotonin [ 29 Is Provigil A Psychiatric Drug, it is possible although highly speculative that the benefits of these drugs for people with a psychiatric diagnosis may be due to poorer functioning of these neurotransmitter systems.

A range of cognitive impairments have been reliably associated with depression [ 58 ] and some anxiety disorders [ 59 ]. This raises the possibility that modafinil may be used to enhance poorer cognitive performance amongst this population. As would be expected from recruitment via online drug user forums, levels of reported illicit drug use in the sample were high. These findings are consistent with those of Ott and Biller-Andorno [ 62 ] who reported similar percentages of lifetime illicit drug use to Is Provigil A Psychiatric Drug reported in the current study.

The findings in the current study may indicate, as suggested earlier, that illicit drug users are more likely to take CEDs since they report being more open to taking drugs in general. Conversely, although the reported illicit drug use in the current study may reflect the drug user forum population from which the sample was drawn, it does suggest that those who take CEDs tend to use recreational drugs as well.

The present study has a number of limitations. Additionally, although the gender bias in the sample may reflect a higher propensity of risk-taking behaviour by men [ 63 ], it may more simply be an artefact of the online forum recruitment methods as users of such forum sites appear typically to be male [ 64 — 66 ].

The questionnaire did not include questions on current use of psychiatric medications or other medications which could potentially interact, attenuate or increase the effects of modafinil and other medications. It is difficult, therefore, to assess the benefits of Is Provigil A Psychiatric Drug in those with a psychiatric diagnosis in the absence of this information.

Further research is needed to explore whether there is any evidence to indicate that people with a psychiatric diagnosis self-medicating via the off-prescription use of modafinil.

As many respondents were recruited via drug forums, drug-use data from modafinil users are likely to reflect the behaviour of this population sample and may not reflect all modafinil users. However, this population was targeted to gain a greater understanding of how these drugs were experienced and perceived by users themselves. The survey has thus provided important information on the profile of the off-prescription user of modafinil but the data are subject to the usual limitations of online surveys Is Provigil A Psychiatric Drug 6768 ], such as Provigil Glaucoma reliance on self-report measures with no check being possible on the identity of the respondent.

In addition, this was a self-selecting see more of people who use student, CED user, and drug user online forums. Whilst these weaknesses must be acknowledged, the current study is comparable with the approach taken in other published studies [ 4568 Is Provigil A Psychiatric Drug.

A further limitation is that the survey did Is Provigil A Psychiatric Drug include questions testing for attentional problems. This is potentially a concern as it is possible that there may be an element of self-medication by individuals with low baseline levels of DA and NE. Further research is thus warranted to investigate this possibility. Finally, the survey did not include questions on nicotine and alcohol use, use of other CEDs or routes of administration of modafinil.

The authors intend to address these issues in a further study, which will include these questions and will also investigate cognitive and attentional functions both with and without modafinil use. This study has found that, as the reported frequency of modafinil use increased, the number of perceived benefits increased, whilst the number of negative effects remained stable and unchanged.

Respondents also reported significantly more benefits than risks and more immediate benefits than longer-lasting benefits.

Conversely, those with a reported psychiatric diagnosis perceived greater longer-lasting benefits compared with those without a psychiatric diagnosis. This study has provided insight into the profile of modafinil users who are, in this English language study at least, mostly male, American or British, educated, employed and in their mids.

There was a pattern of reported recreational drug use associated with modafinil use. Whilst self-reported dependency was low in this sample, the link between perceived benefits and frequency of use suggests that there may be the potential for dependency to develop over time.

The possibility that people may be using modafinil as a supportive treatment for a psychiatric diagnosis warrants Is Provigil A Psychiatric Drug explanation from a public health or clinical use perspective. This Is Provigil A Psychiatric Drug may be suggestive of further beneficial Provvigil of modafinil or, more simply, it may reflect insufficient medical treatment for psychiatric disorders in some people. Whichever explanation Provigl out to be correct, it is clear from this paper that the reported perceptions Dfug modafinil as a safe drug, with more frequent use giving greater benefits, suggests that off-prescription use may well increase in popularity and this may result in dependency in some Iz.

The authors would like to thank the forum administrators at Drub, Bluelight and The Student Room who assisted in running this survey, and the Durg for their valued contribution to the research. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field.

Abstract Cognitive enhancing drugs are claimed to improve cognitive functions such as learning and attention. Introduction Cognitive enhancing drugs CEDs are believed to improve cognitive functions such as attention and motivation [ 12 ]. Materials The survey was constructed following an analysis of other recent drug and CED-user surveys [ 45 — 47 ] and the identification of outstanding questions from the literature regarding motivations for use and access to CEDs [ 2 ].

The individual sections of the questionnaire were as follows: Demographics.

Modafinil - Wikipedia

Psychiatric health and drug use. Modafinil use. Analysis A mixed-measures design was used to investigate the perceived effects of modafinil and its frequency of use. Procedure A link to the survey, along with an advertisement, was posted, with appropriate permission, to the selected forum sites.

Access to modafinil The respondents Is Provigil A Psychiatric Drug asked to indicate how they obtained modafinil, selecting more than one option if applicable. Frequency of modafinil use and perceived risks and benefits of modafinil Psycchiatric data analyses reported in this subsection are based on the total number of boxes ticked I the perceived risks and benefits section of the questionnaire. Download: PPT. Table 1. Frequency of modafinil use and means Iw both benefits and risks of modafinil.

Fig 1. Interaction between timeframe of perceived effects and frequency of use of modafinil. Fig 2. The interaction between the number of perceived effects and the frequency of use of modafinil. Table 2. Effects of Pstchiatric health diagnosis on perceived effects of modafinil. Supporting information. S1 File. S2 File. List of subReddit forum sites.

S3 File. Modafinil and methylphenidate questionnaire. S4 File. Study data. S1 Table.

Practical Use and Risk of Modafinil, a Novel Waking Drug

List of concurrent drug use. S2 Table. Full list of positive and negative effects including free text answers. S3 Table. S4 Table. S5 Table. Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the forum administrators at Reddit, Bluelight and The Student Room who assisted in running this survey, and the participants for their valued contribution to the research.

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Motives and perceived consequences of nonmedical ADHD medication use by college students: Are students treating themselves for attention problems.

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J Atten Disord Jul;15 5 — Acad Med Jul 1;88 7 — Mis use of prescribed stimulants in the medical student community: motives and behaviors: a population-based cross-sectional study. Medicine Apr;95 College students' perceived benefit-to-risk tradeoffs for nonmedical use of Is Provigil A Psychiatric Drug stimulants: Implications for intervention designs. Addict Behav Apr1;— Cognitive enhancers versus addictive psychostimulants: The good and bad side of dopamine on prefrontal cortical circuits.

Cognitive enhancement with methylphenidate and modafinil: conceptual advances and societal implications. Neurol Neurosci. Modafinil and methylphenidate for neuroenhancement in healthy individuals: a systematic review. Pharmacol Res Sep 3 — Bastoji H, Jouvet M. Successful treatment of idiopathic hypersomnia and narcolepsy with modafinil. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry Jan 1;12 5 — Ballard RD.

Management of patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Fam Pract. CNS Drugs 9 — Trends in on-label and off-label modafinil use in a nationally representative sample. Provigil Modafinil datasheet. The atypical stimulant and nootropic modafinil interacts with the dopamine transporter in a different manner than classical cocaine-like inhibitors.

PloS One Oct 17;6 10 :e Armodafinil and modafinil have substantially different pharmacokinetic profiles despite having the same terminal half-lives. Clin Drug Investig Sep 1;29 9 — Here P, Hellriegel ET. Clinical pharmacokinetic profile of modafinil. Clin Pharmacokinet. Ballon JS, Feifel D. A systematic review of modafinil: potential clinical uses and mechanisms of action.

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Intern Med J, Aug;38 8 —8. Modafinil combined with cognitive training is associated with improved learning in healthy volunteers—a randomised controlled trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol Apr 1;24 4 — Non-cholinergic modulation of antisaccade performance: a modafinil-nicotine comparison. Psychopharmacol Dec 1; 2 — Effects of modafinil and methylphenidate on visual attention capacity: a TVA-based study.

Psychopharmacol Jun1; 3 — Modafinil for cognitive neuroenhancement in healthy non-sleep-deprived subjects: a systematic review. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol Nov 1;25 11 — Cognitive effects of modafinil in student volunteers may depend on IQ. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. Muhammed K. Cosmetic neurology: the role of healthcare professionals. Med Health Care Philos May 1;17 2 — Lennard N. One in ten takes drugs to study. Varsity [Internet]. Pharmacotherapy Feb;28 2 — Prevalence of and motives for pharmacological neuroenhancement in Switzerland—results from a national internet panel.

Addict Feb; 2 — To dope or not to dope: neuroenhancement with prescription drugs and drugs of abuse among Swiss university students. PloS One Nov 13;8 11 :e Non-medical use of prescription stimulants among US college students: prevalence and correlates from a national survey. Addiction Jan; 1 — A retrospective chart review of the effects of modafinil on depression as monotherapy and as adjunctive therapy.

Depress Anxiety 4 — Modafinil augmentation therapy in unipolar and bipolar depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Is Provigil A Psychiatric Drug Psychiatry Nov;74 11 — Robust resilience and substantial interest: a survey of pharmacological cognitive enhancement among university students in the UK and Ireland. PloS One Oct 30;9 10 :e Mephedrone, new kid for the chop? A survey of substance use for cognitive enhancement by university students in the Netherlands.

Front Syst Neurosci Feb 17; Pharmacological neuroenhancement in the field of economics—poll results from an online survey. Front Psychol Apr 19;

Yes, Provigil is a controlled substance. It's classified as a schedule IV prescription drug. This means it has an accepted medical use but may. Overall, modafinil was perceived by users as being safe. Modafinil users reported higher levels of illicit drug use and psychiatric diagnosis.

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