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Even though the plasma profile displays a broader interindividual variability, this appears to be Provigil Askapatient reproducible on an individual basis. Tell your doctor about all your current medicines. Having identified some of the possibilities and potential pitfalls, we will use these findings to develop methods that can be subsequently generalized to evaluate other interventions from unstructured text.
We have demonstrated how SGOPE shows potential for the identification of perceived causation and evaluation of the effectiveness of Modafinil. The findings show that in comparison to the current inconclusive evidence, most posters find Modafinil to be effective in dealing with fatigue and cognitive symptoms across a wider range of conditions. Our study shows the potential for new research methods and data sources to augment existing knowledge.
Although the two methods are very different, we demonstrate how computational methods can extract the same main topic areas as qualitative analysis. Although much work is needed to refine the techniques and address the challenges identified, our comparison suggests NLP can be used to look beyond the literal meaning of the words, gaining an understanding of how posters assess the effectiveness of a healthcare intervention and the outcomes that they value, on a much greater scale than is possible from qualitative studies.
Ethical review and approval was not required for the study on human participants in accordance with the local legislation and institutional requirements. Written informed consent for participation was not required for this study in accordance with the national legislation and the institutional requirements. JW conceived the study design, conducted the study, and drafted the paper. FG and JC contributed to study Provigil Askapatient, advised on study Provigil Askapatient, and contributed to editing the paper.
All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. The authors declare that the research was conducted in Provigil Askapatient absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
This research was funded by University of Warwick. Front Digit Health. Published online Feb Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article was submitted to Health Informatics, a section of the journal Frontiers in Digital Health.
Received Aug 24; Accepted Jan The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Objective: To compare the findings from a qualitative and a natural language processing NLP based analysis of online patient experience posts on patient experience of the effectiveness and impact of the drug Modafinil.
Study objectives were to Qualitatively explore context, health conditions, and symptoms where Modafinil is used, its perceived effectiveness and impact, and identify indications of causation of effect and outcomes. Evaluate the ability of NLP methods to identify the qualitative findings. Why Modafinil?
Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Data Selection and Preparation In Januaryusing google searches, we identified websites containing publicly available text about the experience of Modafinil use. Ethical Considerations The ethical issues surrounding the use of SGOPE data for research purposes are complex and continue to evolve 66 Qualitative Analysis Following familiarization with the posts, the data Provigil Askapatient coded and the codes merged into themes. Table 1 Using categories to identify causal text and perceived effectiveness.
Table 2 Examples of sentiment grading. Grade Explanation Example Positive Overall positive.
Though i can honestly say, i don't find it addictive. NLP The narrative fields were extracted to create a corpus. Entity Identification To identify relevant entities, we used the following POS tokens tagged as nouns: Drug Names—both name variations of Modafinil and other drugs; those taken previously, concurrently, or subsequently in addition to Provigil Askapatient that may have no relevance to the post.
Relationship Identification We used three methods to identify the relationships between entities in order to understand the semantic meaning of the text: POS tagging of verbs occurring between entities to indicate simple relationships; Collocation analysis 92 to reveal patterns and meanings that may not be apparent Azkapatient frequency lists or manual reading of the texts; Co-occurrence analysis: this assumes that if two entities co-exist within so many words that there is an underlying relationship between them.
Comparing the Two Methods We manually mapped each of the most frequent key words and terms from the computational corpus analysis to Askapatinet themes that emerged from the qualitative analysis. Results The dataset included posts with a Provvigil length of 72, words average ; minimum 15; maximum 2, Qualitative Analysis We identified eight themes which we describe below.
Reason for Taking Modafinil All posts were concerned with finding a solution for symptoms of Provigil Askapatient, sleep and or cognitive dysfunction. Impact of Symptoms Almost all posts contained detail of how these fatigue or cognitive symptoms affect their lives, emotionally, socially, and practically. Responses to their conditions included fear, desperation, hopelessness, resignation, embarrassment, and guilt: Life was miserable. I couldn't stand being this form of myself any longer—it's not me  Symptoms were described as Provigil Askapatient considerable impact on family and social relationships, putting Provigli strain on marriages, partnerships and affecting parenting: My husband gets sick and tired of me being tired all the time and particularly hates it when I have to have a nap  Before Nuvigal I couldn't keep my eyes open and live my normal life with 3 boys!
Some Provigil Askapatient reported that stopping taking Modafinil for a few days before resuming a daily dose appeared to restore its effectiveness After a week or so, effects not as strong and can make you feel paradoxically very tired. Documents Percentage Percentage valid Daily 53 Other Interventions Almost all posts included details of previously Askapatienf or tried interventions including self-help Provigil Askapatient lifestyle changes, and any interventions taken in combination with Modafinil.
Comparing Qualitative and Corpus Results Of the highest frequency keywords 88 mapped directly to qualitative themes, seven related to negation or scale and 5 could not be classified. Table 5 highest frequency keywords and keyterms by topic. Table 8 PreModafinil and PostModafinil 3—5-word ngrams grouped by theme. Table 9 Example ngrams in context.
Depression I have been working for many years with one combination after another of medications for bi polar Provibil. Before Nuvigil I have been suffering for the past 3 years or so with marked fatigue. For the last few years I have been taking medicines to calm me down and ease my stress levels.
With that said, recently I have been back and forth to the doctor for 4 months now. I have been fighting this for as long as my memory Provigil Askapatient take me. I consider my own experiences to be significant in that I have been on the SSRI cipralex celexa, escitalopram since age 19, having experienced bouts of diagnosed major depression in my late teens. I Provigil Askapatient Provihil taking Provigil for about 9 months now after my sleep disorder kept me awake for 8 days even after being on a 6 mg dose of lorazepam to sleep at night for several years.
I have been diagnosed with and suffering from Idiopathic Hypersomnia for the last 6 years. I have been through 2 sleep studies and I wasn't quite a match for the CPAP machine but according to my Provigil Askapatient at the Mayo Clinic, there is obviously something wrong with how tired I am Provigil Askapatient how easily I can fall asleep.
After the buzz wore off, my life became normal, which was a great improvement over the constant feelings of lethargy and helplessness I used to feel. As someone who works online, as a writer and retailer, I used to find myself Askxpatient an article 1 min, and somehow snapping out of a haze a few hours later. I used to drink coffee for this kind of thing, but tolerance builds up quickly and by the end of exams I'd be drinking a few cups a day and it made me feel no good.
I used to be a PhD student who was heavily dependent on Adderall for a cognitive and motivational boost. Click at this page, I have found that effects of Modafinil, for me at least, are extremely subtle and almost unnoticeable until I start to think back and examine the things that I have done on a given day. I have Provigil Askapatient that a very effective remedy is to take a couple of co-codamol tablets, which each contain 8 mg of codeine.
I have found that my own lack Provigil Askapatient worry or guilt in situations like these prevents people from becoming suspicious—nobody batted an eyelid.
The one concern I have is that I have found that cutting the dose as I did once for several days when I didn't place the online order in time seems to have a dramatic negative effect.
I have found that Modafinil gives me a very clear mind for problem solving. I have found that if I skip the workout, I don't have as much energy throughout the day. I have found that if I eat a lighter lunch, the dip is not as bad. I have found that overall mod just works best on its own.
I feel my age for the first time ever! Like many others, the Privigil time I took it was great! The first time around, I nearly drove my family crazy with my talking and myself crazy trying to keep my rapid thoughts to myself. The Asakpatient time I took it, I did not have the headaches, smelly urine, post nasal drip, fuzzy vision, or muscle aches. All I can say is that I'm now a 4. I am dramatically more productive at Provigil Askapatient and for the first time in my like I feel capable of planning for the future.
I will never forget how deep my mind sank that week, it was the first time I'd ever felt truly depressed—not even sAkapatient family deaths or the comedown from mg of pure MDMA was as bad as how I was feeling that morning. When I took it for an exam the first time it was amazing, I took mg at around 8 and stayed up the entire night studying with no problems.
I was captivated by his work, which really was excellent we both received 1st for our effortsbut for the first time that day I was ever so slightly distracted while I was reading. The first time, I seriously wondered about the efficacy of the things. I think it important to note that I have never taken it every day and Provitil never take more than mg. The first time I tried Modafinil the effect Askapatiennt immediate.
Right from the first time I took Modafinil not only did I feel better, but I could tell how Provigil Askapatient more I was worried about my work, the amount of detail I would put into my projects Provgiil shocked myself.
The first time I took modafinil I understood what all the hype was about. Table 10 Examples of causation reason and consequence. I was afraid to Provigil Askapatient alone for more than an hour for Provigil Askapatient that I would fall asleep driving I Provigil Askapatient many close calls! This drug has made a significant improvement in my quality of life. I can keep my job and haven't wrecked any cars.
This drug has returned my pre-MS life to me. I can fully f unction on the job 1, I forgot Provigil Askapatient take it 1 day And could not stay awake and could not stop eating, just like prior to starting Provigil. Discussion Within Provigll exploratory study of the unstructured narrative post content, both methods successfully demonstrated how the majority of posters with a wide range of conditions found Modafinil effective in Provigil Schedule 4 fatigue or cognitive symptoms.
Table 11 Example posts with conflicting sentiment analysis results. Manual grade negative—NLP grade positive Manual grade positive—NLP grade negative First day was great started ar dose then falling asleep during day. Increased todidn't fall asleep during day but very nervous and couldn't sleep at night.
Going to breakup dosage to see if that helps Side Effects Itching, can't sleep Provigil Askapatient nigh t  I have sleep apnea and also Multiple Sclerosis. I use the mg tab, but not on a daily basis. I use this when I feel tired from my MS.
I recommend this for MS patients that tend to have no Provigil Askapatient when they wake up in the mornings. It doesn't seem to affect my symptoms of MS; i. It just gives me energy to get throught the day, when I need to do what I need to do. I see my Neurologists for the medication prescription. Compared to Current Evidence These findings of overall effectiveness contrast strongly to the existing current RCT and systematic review evidence, which are generally used to determine treatment pathway options for clinicians Identifying Causal Inference Studies have begun to look Asmapatient the lexical and grammatical features of causal statements Provigil Askapatient free text 84 and some work has been done using NLP to identify pharmacological adverse events from social media 33, suggesting that negative effectiveness can be shown from this type of data.
Provigol and Limitations Using content purely from the public domain is both a strength and a limitation. Future Research The next study in the project will be a fully NLP based analysis of a much larger dataset of patient experiences of Modafinil use. Conclusion We have demonstrated how SGOPE shows potential for the Provigil Askapatient of perceived causation and evaluation of the Prvoigil of Modafinil.
Data Availability Statement Publicly available datasets were analyzed in this study. Ethics Statement Ethical review and approval was not required for the study on human participants in accordance with the local legislation and institutional requirements.
Author Contributions JW conceived the study design, conducted the study, and drafted the paper. Conflict of Interest The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be Provigil Askapatient as a potential conflict Provigil Askapatient interest. Acknowledgments Ines Kander undertook independent review of posts. Footnotes Funding. References 1. Web use for symptom appraisal of physical health conditions: a systematic review.
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Some drugs gain popularity for weight-loss effects | Pittsburgh Post-Gazette
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Doctor Discussion: Is Your MS Treatment Plan Working?
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Modafinil: Restricted Use Recommended. UK Speech therapy will help those who have problems speaking or swallowing. There is even cognitive rehabilitation to improve memory, attention, and problem solving, which may be affected by the loss of myelin in the brain. More research is showing the benefits of exercise and other rehabilitation strategies in improving quality of life, safety, and independence in MS patients.
Link contributes Provigil Askapatient well being and helps with sleep, appetite, and bowel and bladder function. In addition, when patients have issues with muscle tone, spasticity, and Provigil Askapatient, exercise will keep muscles limber and preserve strength. Sometimes, moving to a cooler climate can help. Some patients are sensitive to heat. Lots of diets have been put forth for MS, but none have proven effective or necessary.
The only vitamin that has been proven to help is vitamin D. Studies on other vitamins, such as vitamin E, show promise. Your doctor should be able to give you a good indication of your prognosis. Provigil Askapatient are different types of MS, some of which are more progressive than others.
Even if you have primary progressive MS, there is a lot your doctor Provigil Askapatient do to minimize it. None have been scientifically proven to help. The danger of using them is that patients might stop using prescribed treatments, which can certainly cause their MS to get worse. However, some people find that alternative therapies such as acupuncture, hypnosis, massage, and meditation help reduce stress, manage symptoms, and make them feel better.Truly a lifeline lifting away the morning fatigue and stupor from sleep apnea, Hyper-insomnia and TBI. Began with mg in the morning and 50mg after lunch. Adverse Drug Reactions for PROVIGIL* (Modafinil). These charts and graphs are based on reports received through the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS).
Everyone will react differently to treatment for their RRMS. Proviggil pulmonary fibrosis IPF is a disease that causes scarring in the lung tissue. It's progressive, so it's important to start treatment early. Calluses Provigil Askapatient your hands can be caused by a variety of activities are aren't usually painful or permanent.
Here's what you need to know about the causes.
Objective: To compare the findings from a qualitative and a natural language processing (NLP) based analysis of online patient experience. Qualitatively explore context, health conditions, and symptoms where Modafinil is used, its perceived effectiveness and impact, and identify.