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The majority of respondents reported themselves to be Provigil Free Prescription, employed and university-educated. Overall, modafinil was seen as being a safe drug, even when taken three times a week or more.

Most respondents appeared to be aware of the recommended dose of mg. Although perceived dependency on modafinil was low, the link between frequency of use and perceived benefits suggest that there is a possibility that dependency may develop over time.

The data show that more frequent reported use of modafinil led to perceived benefits. It appears that the reported use of modafinil on at least a monthly basis resulted in a higher number of reported benefits whilst reported risks remain low. A plausible explanation could be that more frequent reported use occurs as a consequence of greater perceived benefits since it seems unlikely that continued use would occur without experiencing the benefits of the drug. Chronic drug use is, however, known to lead to tolerance caused, in part, by a reduction in receptor numbers [ go here ] Provigil Free Prescription this may not always be the case with modafinil.

Nasr, Wendt and Steiner [ 51 ] reported that long-term use of modafinil in patients with affective disorders did not induce tolerance. Therefore it is plausible that continued, long-term use of modafinil could still provide these perceived benefits.

The data also show that perceived benefits outweigh perceived risks. The respondents reported significantly more benefits than risks. It is known that modafinil is well-tolerated and lacks the undesirable adverse effects of other stimulants [ 24 ]. It was, therefore, Provigil Free Prescription that the benefits would outweigh the risks based on the range of potential benefits that it offers, which include enhanced attention, comprehension and working memory [ 32 ], as well as alertness, vigilance and enhanced executive functions [ 52 ].

Perceived benefits, however, did persist beyond immediate use of modafinil. Everyday use of modafinil resulted in higher reported longer-lasting effects. This finding may, however, be explained by the pharmacokinetic profile of modafinil.

As the half-life of modafinil is approximately 12—15 hours [ 2526 ], daily use of modafinil would result in a constant, and possibly increasing, plasma concentration of modafinil, which also suggests constant, higher levels of synaptic DA and NE in addition to other neurotransmitters that are modulated by modafinil. Increased synaptic DA and NE have been associated with improved cognitive function [ 2853 ].

One-fifth of respondents reported having a psychiatric diagnosis and, of these, the most commonly reported diagnoses were depression, anxiety or both depression and anxiety. However, it should be noted that the reported rates of psychiatric diagnosis among modafinil users do seem to be higher than the Prevalence and official recognition of psychiatric problems varies by country, gender and age group [ 5556 ], therefore making direct comparisons difficult.

It may be that modafinil use may have preceded the psychiatric diagnosis or it may be that modafinil may have been being used to combat the potential side-effects of prescribed medications. Individuals with a psychiatric diagnosis did not always perceive greater benefits of modafinil use compared with those without a psychiatric diagnosis.

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Respondents with a reported psychiatric diagnosis perceived significantly greater longer-lasting benefits but the perceived immediate benefits were not significantly greater.

This is somewhat surprising considering the potential mood enhancing effects of modafinil [ 43 ]. Deficiencies in DA, NE and serotonin are likely to underpin major depressive disorder [ 57 ]. As modafinil intake results in higher levels of DA, NE, and serotonin Provigil Free Prescription 29 ], it is possible although highly speculative that the benefits of these drugs for people with a psychiatric diagnosis may be due to poorer functioning of these neurotransmitter systems.

A range of cognitive impairments have been reliably associated with depression [ 58 ] and some anxiety disorders [ 59 ]. This raises the possibility that modafinil may be used to read article poorer cognitive performance amongst this population. As would be expected from recruitment via online drug user forums, levels of reported illicit drug use in the sample were high. These findings are consistent with those of Ott and Biller-Andorno [ 62 ] who reported similar percentages of lifetime illicit drug use to those reported in the current study.

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The findings in the current study may indicate, as suggested earlier, that illicit drug users are more likely to take CEDs since they report being more open to taking drugs in general. Conversely, although the reported illicit drug use in the current study may reflect the drug user forum population from which the sample was drawn, it does suggest that those who take CEDs tend to use recreational drugs as well.

The Ffee study has a number of limitations. Additionally, although the gender bias in the sample may reflect a higher propensity of risk-taking behaviour by men [ 63 ], it may more simply be an artefact of the online Prescrjption recruitment methods as users of such forum sites appear typically to be male [ 64 — 66 ].

The questionnaire did not include questions on current use of psychiatric Frse or other medications which could potentially interact, attenuate or increase the effects of modafinil and other medications. It is Provigil Free Prescription, therefore, to assess the benefits of Feee in those with a psychiatric diagnosis in the absence of this information.

Further research is needed to explore whether there is any evidence to indicate that people with a psychiatric diagnosis self-medicating via the off-prescription use of modafinil.

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As many respondents were recruited via drug forums, drug-use data from modafinil users are likely to reflect the behaviour of this population sample and may not reflect all modafinil users. However, this population was targeted to gain a greater understanding of how these drugs were experienced and perceived by users themselves. The survey has thus provided Ftee information on the profile of the off-prescription user FFree modafinil but the data are subject to the usual limitations of online surveys [ 6768 ], such as a reliance on self-report measures with no check being possible on the identity of the respondent.

In addition, this was a self-selecting sample of people who use student, CED user, and drug user online forums. Whilst Provigil Free Prescription weaknesses must be acknowledged, the current Provigil Free Prescription is comparable with the approach taken in other published studies [ 4568 ].

Provigul further limitation Presciption that the survey rFee not include questions testing for attentional problems. This is potentially a concern as it is possible that there may be an element of self-medication by individuals with low baseline levels of DA and NE. Further research is thus warranted to investigate this possibility.

Finally, the survey did not include questions on nicotine and alcohol use, use of other CEDs or routes of administration of modafinil. The authors intend to address Prescriptin issues in a further study, which will include these questions and will also investigate cognitive and attentional functions both with and without modafinil use. This study has found that, as the reported frequency of modafinil use increased, the number of perceived benefits increased, whilst the number of negative effects remained stable and unchanged.

Respondents also Provigil Free Prescription significantly more benefits than risks and more immediate benefits than longer-lasting benefits. Conversely, those with a reported Ptovigil diagnosis perceived greater longer-lasting benefits compared with those without a psychiatric diagnosis.

This study has provided insight into the profile of modafinil FFree who are, in this English language study at least, mostly male, American or British, educated, employed and in their mids. There was a pattern of reported recreational drug use Prescri;tion with modafinil use. Whilst self-reported dependency was low in this sample, the link between perceived benefits and frequency of use suggests that there may be the potential for dependency to develop over time.

The possibility that people may be using modafinil as a supportive treatment for a psychiatric diagnosis warrants further explanation from a public health or clinical use perspective. This link may be suggestive of further beneficial effects of modafinil or, more simply, it may reflect insufficient medical treatment for psychiatric disorders in some people.

Whichever explanation turns out to be correct, it is clear from this paper that the reported perceptions of modafinil as a safe drug, with more frequent use giving greater benefits, suggests that off-prescription use may well increase in popularity and this may result in dependency Fdee some people. The authors would like to thank the forum administrators at Reddit, Bluelight and The Student Room who assisted in running this survey, and the participants Frer their valued contribution to the research.

Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract Cognitive enhancing drugs are claimed to improve cognitive functions such Proviigl learning and attention. Introduction Cognitive enhancing drugs CEDs are believed to improve cognitive functions such as attention and motivation [ 12 ]. Materials The survey was constructed following an analysis of other recent drug and CED-user surveys [ 45 — 47 ] and the identification of outstanding questions from Proivgil literature regarding motivations for Prpvigil and access to CEDs [ 2 ].

The individual sections of the questionnaire were as follows: Demographics. Psychiatric health Provigil Prescription Requirements drug use.

Modafinil use. Analysis A mixed-measures design was used to investigate the perceived effects of modafinil and its frequency of use. Procedure A link to the survey, along with an advertisement, was posted, with appropriate permission, to the selected forum sites. Access to modafinil The respondents were asked to indicate how they obtained modafinil, selecting more than one option if applicable.

Frequency of modafinil use and perceived risks and benefits of modafinil The data analyses reported in this subsection are based on the total Proviigil of boxes ticked in the perceived risks and benefits section of the questionnaire. Download: PPT. Table 1. Frequency of modafinil use and means for both benefits and risks of modafinil.

Fig 1. Interaction between timeframe of perceived effects and frequency of use of modafinil. Fig 2. The interaction between the number of perceived effects and Prexcription frequency of use of modafinil. Prexcription 2. Effects of mental health diagnosis Prescriptoin perceived effects of modafinil.

Supporting information. S1 File. S2 File. List of subReddit forum sites. S3 File. Modafinil and methylphenidate questionnaire. S4 File. Study data. Provigil Free Prescription Table. List of concurrent drug use. S2 Table. Full list of positive Provigil Free Prescription negative effects including free text answers. S3 Table. S4 Table.

S5 Table. Acknowledgments Prescriptionn authors would like to thank the forum administrators at Reddit, Bluelight and The Student Room who assisted in running this survey, and the participants for their valued contribution Provigil Free Prescription the research. References 1. Outhoff K. Cognitive enhancement: a brief overview. S Afr Fam Pract 1 : 16— View Article Google Scholar 2. What should Precription do about student use of cognitive enhancers?

An analysis of current evidence. Cognition enhancers between treating and doping the mind. Pharmacol Res. Sattler S, Wiegel C. Subst Use Misuse. Young-Powell A, Page L. One in five students have taken the study drug modafinil. The Guardian. Motives and perceived consequences of nonmedical ADHD medication use by college students: Are students treating themselves for attention problems. J Atten Disord. Cult Med Psychiatry. Aikins RD. Academic performance enhancement: A qualitative study of the perceptions and habits of prescription stimulant—using college students.

J Coll Stud Dev. View Article Google Scholar Illicit use of prescription ADHD medications on Prescriptuon college campus: a multimethodological Provlgil. Provigil Free Prescription Am Coll Health. Cleveland E. Society Jun 1;53 3 —9. Persistent nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among college students: possible association with ADHD symptoms. J Atten Disord Jul;15 5 — Acad Med Jul 1;88 7 — Mis use of prescribed stimulants in the medical student community: motives and behaviors: a population-based cross-sectional study.

Medicine Apr;95 College Prescriptkon perceived benefit-to-risk tradeoffs for nonmedical use of prescription stimulants: Implications for intervention designs. Addict Behav Apr1;— Cognitive enhancers versus addictive Provigil Doctors The good and bad side of dopamine on prefrontal cortical circuits. Cognitive enhancement with methylphenidate and modafinil: conceptual advances and societal implications.

Neurol Neurosci. Modafinil and methylphenidate for neuroenhancement in healthy individuals: a systematic review. Pharmacol Res Sep 3 — Bastoji H, Jouvet M. Successful treatment of idiopathic hypersomnia and narcolepsy with modafinil. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry Jan 1;12 5 — Ballard RD. Management of patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Fam Pract. CNS Drugs 9 — Trends in on-label and off-label modafinil use in a nationally representative Provitil. Provigil Modafinil datasheet. The atypical stimulant and nootropic modafinil interacts with the dopamine transporter in a different manner than classical cocaine-like inhibitors.

PloS One Oct 17;6 10 :e Armodafinil and modafinil have substantially different pharmacokinetic profiles despite having the same terminal half-lives. Clin Drug Investig Sep 1;29 9 — Robertson P, Hellriegel ET. Clinical pharmacokinetic profile of modafinil. Clin Prescrjption. Ballon Frree, Feifel D. A systematic review of modafinil: potential clinical uses and mechanisms of action. J Clin Psychiatry Apr 4;67 4 — Psychostimulants and cognition: a continuum of behavioral and cognitive activation.

Pharmacol Rev Jan 1;66 1 — Modafinil: A review of neurochemical actions and effects on Provibil. Neuropsychopharmacol Jun;33 7 Modanifil activates the histaminergic system through the orexinergic neurons.

Neurosci Lett. Intern Med J, Aug;38 8 —8. Modafinil combined with cognitive training is associated with improved learning in healthy volunteers—a randomised controlled trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol Apr 1;24 4 — Non-cholinergic modulation of antisaccade performance: a modafinil-nicotine comparison.

Psychopharmacol Dec 1; 2 — Effects of modafinil and methylphenidate on visual attention capacity: a TVA-based study. Psychopharmacol Jun1; 3 — Modafinil for cognitive neuroenhancement in healthy non-sleep-deprived subjects: a systematic review. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol Nov 1;25 11 — Cognitive effects of modafinil in student volunteers may depend on IQ. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. Muhammed K. Cosmetic neurology: the role of healthcare professionals.

Med Health Care Philos May 1;17 2 — Lennard N. One in ten takes drugs to study. Varsity [Internet]. Pharmacotherapy Feb;28 2 Predcription Prevalence of and motives for pharmacological neuroenhancement in Switzerland—results from a national internet panel. Addict Feb; 2 — To dope Progigil not to dope: neuroenhancement with prescription drugs and drugs of abuse among Swiss university students.

Take them to your local pharmacy which will dispose of them for you. Dated February Hi everyone. Can sleep apnea manifest itself Ptovigil via cognitive symptoms poorer memory, inability to reason, poor concentration Below is the complete story in summary and Disclaimer: This article is for information only and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of medical conditions.

Egton Medical Information Systems Limited has used all reasonable care in compiling the information but make no warranty as to its accuracy. Consult a doctor or other health care professional for diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions. For details see our conditions. Take modafinil at the Proviggil times each day to avoid missing any doses.

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The off-prescription use of modafinil: An online survey of perceived risks and benefits

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